Polacy rozdają kredytując innych swoje pieniądze

Obserwując rosnące zobowiązania Polski i bezlitośnie powiększający się dług publiczny, zapominamy, że nie tylko bierzemy pożyczki, ale także ich udzielamy.

Pożyczki zaciągnięte przez Gierka w latach 70. są już niemal mityczne. Co ciekawe, w latach 70. i 80. PRL równie chętnie dzielił się środkami. Udzielono wtedy pożyczek na kwotę ok. 1,2 mld dolarów. Wiele państw, które z nich skorzystały, do tej pory ma Polskę za wierzyciela. 

Bom kredytowy rozpoczął się w związku z rozwijaniem polskiego eksportu. Według tegorocznej informacji Ministerstwa Finansów, należności wobec Polski, wraz z możliwymi odsetkami to 5,8 mld zł. Kto od nas pożyczył najwięcej?

 

1. Irak (4,1 mld zł)

Lista naszych dłużników jest zaskakująca. Otwierają ją nie największe gospodarki, ani strategiczni sojusznicy, tylko stosunkowo egzotyczne kraje. Najwięcej polskich pieniędzy, bo aż 4,1 mld zł, pożyczył Irak. Co ciekawe pożyczek nie zaciągnięto po przemianach sprzed kilkunastu lat, ale jeszcze w ramach współpracy finansowej z lat 1984-1990. Zadłużenie istnieje głównie na papierze, ponieważ od czasu I wojny w zatoce perskiej Irak nie wywiązuje się z zobowiązań.

 

2. Chiny (806 mln zł)

Drugie, pod względem zadłużenia, miejsce należy do Chin. Państwu Środka do spłacenia pozostało 806 mln zł. To kredyt udzielony na finansowanie polskiego eksportu. Mówiąc wprost: dajemy Chińczykom pieniądze, za które oni kupują nasze produkty.

 

3. Sudan (385 mln zł)

Znacznie gorzej na współpracy handlowej Polska wyszła z krajami takimi jak Sudan, Kuba, czy Mozambik. Rekordzistą w przypadku kredytów zaciąganych w latach 70. jest bez wątpienia Sudan, który obecnie jest zobowiązany do spłacenia ponad 385 mln zł, z czego sporą część stanowią narosłe odsetki. Oryginalne zadłużenie wynosiło 58 mln zł. O sudańskie długi upomnieliśmy się w 1986 r. kiedy podpisano umowę restrukturyzującą zadłużenie. Oczywiście żadne pieniądze z tego powodu do nas nie docierają.

 

4. Angola (328,2 mln zł)

Po polskie pieniądze sięgają nawet afrykańskie państwa. Angola jest nam winna 328,2 mln zł. Podobnie jak w przypadku Chin, Skarb Państwa przekazał w ten sposób środki na finansowanie polskiego eksportu.

 

5. Etiopia (200,2 mln zł)

W ramach umowy międzyrządowej (program „Go Africa”) Etiopia zaciągnęła w Polsce kredyt na ponad 200 mln. zł. Pieniądze zostaną przeznaczone na modernizację gospodarki i sektora publicznego, rozwój obszarów wiejskich. Z takiej współpracy korzystają polskie firmy, m.in Ursus, który otworzył linię montażową w Etiopii.

 

6. Indonezja (113,2 mln zł)

Indonezja ma od 2003 r. pokaźny dług wobec Polski, ale. stopniowo się zmniejsza, ponieważ państwo regularnie go spłaca. Faktycznie pieniądze wróciły do kraju jeszcze szybciej, ponieważ pieniądze przeznaczono na zakup polskiego sprzętu wojskowego. Do Indonezji trafiły między innymi samoloty z PZL Mielec, helikoptery z PZL Świdnik i okręty z SMW w Gdyni.

 

7. Mozambik (100,2 mln zł)

Mozambik po polskie pieniądze w ramach kredytu kupieckiego zgłosił się jeszcze wcześniej niż Irak, bo w 1977 rok. I równie długo zalega ze spłatą. Dużą część tej kwoty stanowią odsetki.

 

8. Wietnam (do spłacenia: 84,9 mln zł)

Wietnam wielokrotnie czerpał środki z polskich kredytów. Obecnie zadłużony jest na ok. 85 mln zł. Pieniądze przeznaczono na sfinansowanie zakupów od polskich firm.

 

9. Bośnia i Hercegowina (do spłacenia: 74,9 mln zł)

Bośnia i Hercegowina są jednym z najnowszych dłużników naszego Skarbu Państwa. Do spłaty zostało im ok. 75 mln zł.

 

10. Serbia i Czarnogóra (do spłacenia: 71,5 mln zł)

Serbia i Czarnogóra jako państwo przestało istnieć w 2006 r. Tuż przed proklamowaniem niepodległości przez Czarnogórę kraj wziął kredyt w ramach pomocy wiązanej. Obecnie do spłacenia pozostało 71,5 mln zł, z czego 33,9 mln zł winna jest Czarnogóra.

Poza pierwszą dziesiątką dłużników znaleźli się Uzbekistan (41,3 mln zł), Kuba (13,6 mln), która pieniądze otrzymała trzy razy: w 1975, 1979 i w 1989 roku. W całości nigdy ich nie spłacono.

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